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  • Canessa, S., Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A., C., Martel, A., Pasmans, F. (2019). Mitigation of amphibian disease requires a stronger connection between research and management. Biological Conservation 236, 236-242. [Link]
  • Bozzuto, C., & Canessa, S. (2019). Impact of seasonal cycles on host-pathogen dynamics and disease mitigation for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. Global Ecology and Conservation, e00551 [Link]
  • Basanta, M. D., Rebollar, E. A., & Parra-Olea, G. (2019). Potential risk of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Mexico. PloS one, 14(2), e0211960. [Link]
  • Verbrugghe, E., Adriaensen, C., Martel, A., Vanhaecke, L., & Pasmans, F. (2019). Growth regulation in amphibian pathogenic chytrid fungi by the quorum sensing metabolite tryptophol. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9. [Link]


  • Lötters, S., Wagner, N., Kerres, A., Vences, M., Steinfartz, S., Sabino-Pinto, J., Seufer, L., Preissler, K., Schulz, V., Veith, M. (2018). First report of host co-infection of parasitic amphibian chytrid fungi. SALAMANDRA, 54(4), 287-290. [Link]
  • Spitzen-van der Sluijs. (2018). It takes three to tango: The impact of chytridiomycosis on native amphibians in the Netherlands. (pHd
    thesis, Ghent University, Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine. [email author for digital copy: a.spitzen@ravon.nl] [Link]
  • Sabino-Pinto, J., Veith, M., Vences, M., & Steinfartz, S. 2018. Asymptomatic infection of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in captivity. Scientific reports, 8(1), 11767. [Link]
  • Fitzpatrick, L. D., Pasmans, F., Martel, A., & Cunningham, A. A. (2018). Epidemiological tracing of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans identifies widespread infection and associated mortalities in private amphibian collections. Scientific reports, 8(1), 13845. [Link]
  • Bletz, M. C., Kelly, M., Sabino-Pinto, J., Bales, E., Van Praet, S., Bert, W., Boyen, F., Vences, M., Steinfartz, S., Pasmans, F., Martel,
    A. (2018). Disruption of skin microbiota contributes to salamander disease. Proc. R. Soc. B, 285(1885), 20180758. [Link]
  • Hopkins, M. C., Adams, M. J., Super, P. E., Olson, D. H., Hickman, C. R., English, P., Ludwig, K. A. (2018). Batrachochytrium
    (Bsal) in Appalachia—Using scenario building to proactively prepare for a wildlife disease outbreak caused by an invasive amphibian chytrid fungus (No. 2018-1150). US Geological Survey. [Link]
  • Pereira, K. E., Crother, B. I., Sever, D. M., Fontenot, C. L., Pojman, J. A., Wilburn, D. B., Woodley, S. K. 2018. Skin glands of an aquatic salamander vary in size and distribution and release antimicrobial secretions effective against chytrid fungal pathogens. Journal of Experimental Biology, jeb-183707 [Link]
  • Pasmans, F., Canessa, S., Martel, A. 2018. The eye of the storm: silent infections driving amphibian declines. Animal Conservation. 21: 102-103. [Link]
  • Martel, A., Pasmans, F., Fisher, M.C., Grogan, L.F., Skerratt, L.F., Berger, L. 2018. Chytridiomycosis. In: Seyedmousavi S., de Hoog G., Guillot J., Verweij P. (eds) Emerging and Epizootic Fungal Infections in Animals. Springer, Cham. [Link]
  • Beukema, W., Martel, A., Nguyen, T.T., Goka, K., Schmeller, D.S., Yuan, Z., Laking, A.E., Nguyen, T.Q., Ling, C., Shelton., Loyau, A., Pasmans, F. 2018. Environmental context and differences between native and invasive observed niches of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans affect invasion risk assessments in the Western Palaearctic. Diversity and Distributions. 24(12): 1788-1801. [Link]
  • Sabino-Pinto, J., Krause, E. T., Bletz, M. C., Martel, A., Pasmans, F., Steinfartz, S., Vences, M. 2018. Detectability vs. time and costs in pooled DNA extraction of cutaneous swabs: a study on the amphibian chytrid fungi. Amphibia-Reptilia. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/15685381-20181011
  • Smith., H. K., Pasmans, F., Dhaenens, M., Deforce, D., Bonte, D., Verheyen, K., Lens, L., Martel, A. 2018. Skin mucosome activity as an indicator of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans susceptibility in salamanders. PLoS ONE 13: 7. [Link]
  • Bates, K.A., Shelton, J.M.G., Mercier, V.L., Hopkins, K.P., Harrison, X.A., Petrovan. S., Fisher, M. C. 2018. Captivity and exposure to the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans are linked to perturbation and dysbiosis of the amphibian skin microbiome. [Pre-peer review link]
  • EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW), More, S., Angel Miranda, M., Bicout, D., Bøtner, A., Butterworth, A., Calistri, P., Depner, K., Edwards, S., Garin-Bastuij, B., Good, M., Michel., V., Raj, M., Saxmose Nielsen, S., Sihvonen, N., Spoolder, H., Arend Stegeman, J., Thulke, H.H., Verlarde, A., Willeberg, P., Winckler, C., Baláž , V., Martel, A., Murray, K., Fabris, C., Munoz-Gerjardo, I., Gogin, A., Verdonck, F., Gortázar Schmidt, C. (2018). Risk of survival, establishment and spread of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) in the EU. Efsa Journal, 16(4), e05259. [Link]
  • Stark, T., Martel, A., Pasmans, F., Thomas, V., Gilbert, M., Spitzen, A.. 2018. A European early warning system for a deadly salamander pathogen. AArk Newsletter. 42: 12-14. [English] [Spanish]
  • Katz,T. S., & Zellmer, A. J. (2018). Comparison of model selection technique performance in predicting the spread of newly invasive species: a case study with Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. Biological Invasions, 20(8), 2107-2119. [Link]
  • Commission, E. (2018). COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING DECISION (EU) 2018/320 of 28 February 2018 on certain animal health protection measures for intra-Union trade in salamanders and the introduction into the Union of such animals in relation to the fungus Batrachochytrium
      (EU) 2018/320. E. Commission, Official Journal of the European Union (EU) 2018/320 [PDF]
  • Dalbeck, L., Düssel-Siebert, H., Kerres, A., Kirst, K., Koch, A., Lötters, S., Ohlhoff, D., Sabino-Pinto, J., Preißler, K., Schulte, U., Schulz, V., Steinfartz, S., Veith, M., Vences, M., Wagner, N., Wegge, J. 2018. Die Salamanderpest und ihr Erreger Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal): aktueller Stand in Deutschland. Zeitschrift für Feldherpetologie 25: 1–22. [Link]
  • Spitzen – van der Sluijs, Stegen, G., Bogaerts, S., Canessa, S., Steinfartz, S., Janssen, N., Bosman, W., Pasmans, F., Martel, A. 2018. Post-epizootic salamander persistence in a disease-free refugium suggests poor dispersal ability of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. Scientific Reports (8). [Link]
  • Balaz, V., Solsky, M., Gonzalez, D. L., Havlikova, B., Zamorano, J. G., Sevilleja, C. G., Torrent, L., Vojar, J. 2018. First survey of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in wild and captive amphibians in the Czech Republic. SALAMANDRA 54(1): 87-91. [Link]
  • Šunje, E., Pasmans, F., Maksimović, Z., Martel, A., & Rifatbefović, M. 2018. Recorded mortality in the vulnerable Alpine salamander, Salamandra atra prenjensis (Amphibia: Caudata), is not associated with the presence of known amphibian pathogens. SALAMANDRA 54(1): 75-79. 
  • Yuan, Z., Martel, A., Wu, J., Praet, S., Canessa, S., Pasmans, F. 2018. Widespread occurrence of an emerging fungal pathogen in heavily traded Chinese urodelan species. Conservation Letters. [Link]
  • Thomas, V., Blooi, M., Van Rooij, P., Van Praet, S., Verbrugge, E., Grasselli, E., Lukac, M., Smith, S., Pasmans, F., Martel, A. 2018. Recommendations on diagnostic tools for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 2018;00:1–11. [Link]
  • Canessa, S., Bozzuto, C., Campbell Grant, E. H., Cruickshank, S. S., Fisher, M. C., Koella, J. C., Lötters, S., Martel, A., Pasmans, F., Scheele, B. C., Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A., Steinfartz, S. and Schmidt, B. R. (), Decision making for mitigating wildlife diseases: from theory to practice for an emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians. J Appl Ecol. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.13089 [Link]


  • Yap, T. A., Nguyen, N. T., Serr, M., Shepack, A., & Vredenburg, V. T. 2017. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans and the Risk of a Second Amphibian Pandemic. EcoHealth, 1-14. [Link]
  • Wang, S., Zhu, W., Fan, L., Li, J., Li, Y. 2017. Amphibians Testing Negative for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. [J]. Asian Herpetological Reserch (AHR), 2017, 8 (3): 190-198.[doi: 10.16373/j. cnki. ahr. 170010]. [Link]
  • Pasmans, F., Bogaerts, S., Braeckman, J., Cunningham, A.A., Hellebuyck, T., Griffiths, R.A., Sparreboom, M., Schmidt, B.R., Martel, A. 2017. Future of keeping pet reptiles and amphibians: towards integrating animal welfare, human health and environmental sustainability. Veterinary Record Published Online First: 19 October 2017 [Link]
  • Van Rooij, P., Pasmans, F., Coen, Y., Martel, A. 2017. Efficacy of chemical disinfectants for the containment of the salamander chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. PLoS ONE 12(10). [Link]
  • Klocke, B., Becker, M., Lewis, J., Fleischer, R. C., Muletz-Wolz, C. R., Rockwood, L., Alonso Aguirre, A., Gratwicke, B. 2017. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans not detected in US survey of pet salamanders. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 13132. [Link]
  • Nguyen, T.T., Nguyen, T.V., Ziegler, T., Pasmans, F., Martel, A.. 2017. Trade in wild anurans vectors the urodelan pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans into Europe. Amphibia-Reptilia, DOI: 10.1163/15685381-00003125 [Link]
  • Iwanowicz, D.D., Schill, W.B., Olson, D.H., Adams, M.J., Densmore, C., Cornman, R. S., Adams, C., Figiel, Jr., Anderson, C.W., Blaustein, A.R., Chestnut, T. 2017. Potential concerns with analytical methods used for the detection of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans from archived DNA of amphibian swab samples, Oregon, USA. Herpetological Review. 48(2): 352–355. [Link]
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  • Stokstad, E. 2017. A fungus is attacking Europe's most beloved salamander. It could wreak havoc if it gets to North America. Science: DOI: 10.1126/science.aan7117 . [Link]
  • Gilbert, M. & A. Spitzen, 2017. Amphibian fungal disease in the live animal trade. OFI Journal, Issue 84, pp 16-18. [Link]
  • Dillon, M. J., Bowkett, A. E., Bungard, M. J., Beckman, K. M., O'brien, M. F., Bates, K., Fischer, M.C., Stevens, J.R., Thornton, C. R. 2017. Tracking the amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans using a highly specific monoclonal antibody and lateral‐flow technology. Microbial biotechnology, 10(2), 381-394. [Link]
  • Stegen, G., F. Pasmans, B.R. Schmidt, L.O. Rouffaer, S. van Praet, M. Schaub, S. Canessa, A. Laudelout, T. Kinet, C. Adriaensen, F. Haesebrouck, W. Bert, F. Bossuyt, A. Martel A, 2017. Drivers of salamander extirpation mediated by Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. Nature, Issue 544, pp 353-356. [Link]
  • Fisher, M. C., 2017. Ecology: In peril from a perfect pathogen. Nature, Issue 544, 300-301. [Link]
  • Grant, E.H.C., E. Muths, R.A. Katz, S. Canessa, M.J. Adams, J.R. Ballard, L. Berger, C.J. Briggs, J.T.H. Coleman, M.J. Gray, M.C. Harris, R.N. Harris, B. Hossack, K.P. Huyvaert, J. Kolby, K.R. Lips, R.E. Lovich, H.I. McCallum, J.R. Mendelson III, P. Nanjappa, D.H. Olson, J.G. Powers, K.L.D. Richgels, R.E. Russell, B.R. Schmidt, A. Spitzen-van der Sluijs, M.K. Watry, D.C. Woodhams & C.L. White, 2017. Using decision analysis to support proactive management of emerging infectious wildlife diseases. Frontier in  Ecology and the Environment, 8. [Link]
  • Farrer, R. A., Martel, A., Verbrugghe, E., Abouelleil, A., Ducatelle, R., Longcore, J. E., James, T.Y., Fisher, M.C., Cuomo, C. A. 2017. Genomic innovations linked to infection strategies across emerging pathogenic chytrid fungi. Nature Communications, 8, 14742. [Link]
  • Laking, A.E., Ngo, H.N., Pasmans, F., Martel, A., Nguyen, T.T. 2017. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans is the predominant chytrid fungus in Vietnamese salamanders. Scientific Reports, 7, 44443. [Link]
  • Schmidt, B.R., Bozzuto C., Lötters, S., Steinfartz, S. 2017. Dynamics of host populations affected by the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans. Royal Society Open Science 4:160801. [Link]
  • EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), Balàž, V., Schmidt, C.G., Murray, K., Carnesecchi, E., Garcia, A., Gervelmeyer, A., Martino,
    L.,Munoz, G.I.,Verdonck, F., Zancanaro, G., Fabris, C. 2017. Scientific and technical assistance concerning the survival, establishment and spread of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal)  in  the  EU. EFSA Journal,15(2) -4739 (77)  [Link]


  • Gilbert, M. & Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A., 2016. The Salamander fungus, too hot to handle? OFI Journal 82: 16-19. [Link]
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  • White, C.L., M.J. Forzan, A.P. Pessier, M.C. Allender, J.R. Ballard, A. Catenazzi, H. Fenton, A. Martel, F. Pasmans, D.L. Miller, R.J. Ossiboff, K.L.D. Richgels, J.L. Kerby. 2016. Amphibian: A case definition and diagnostic criteria for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans chytridiomycosis. Herpetological Review 47:207-209. [Link]
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  • Sabino-Pinto, J., Bletz, M., Hendrix, R., Perl, R. B., Martel, A., Pasmans, F., Lötters, S., Mutschmann, F., Schmeller, D. S., Schmidt, B. R., Veith, M., Wagner, N., Vences, M. & Steinfartz, S. 2015. First detection of the emerging fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Germany. Amphibia-Reptilia, 1-5. [Link]
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Gilbert, M. & Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A. 2016. The Salamander fungus, too hot to handle? OFI Journal 82: 16-19. [Link]
Gilbert, M. & Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A. 2016. The Salamander fungus, too hot to handle? OFI Journal 82: 16-19. [Link]
Gilbert, M. & Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A. 2016. The Salamander fungus, too hot to handle? OFI Journal 82: 16-19. [Link]


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